white zinfandel

zinfandel grapes

Wine tasting is no more than taking a few moments to pause before drinking, and swallowing a glass of wine. A minute spent on considering the wine’s smell, taste and texture is one of the most useful learning aids to wine appreciation. Tasting consists of three basic steps:

Look – examine the wine in the glass against a white background. The colour of a wine can give clues to its age, the grape from which it is made, even where it is from. But all that needs a lot of experience and knoweldge. For now, simply check that it is clear and bright.

Smell – known as the “nose” of the wine, the aromas that emerge form the glass if swirled gently can tell you a lot about it: perhaps reminding you of certain fruits, or aromas like nuts, vegetables, herbs, or even meat. Concentrate on your very first sniff – when the receptors in your nose are sharpest – and think about what you can smell.

Taste – take a sip of the wine and hold it in your mouth. Swirl it around a bit. This is a chance to check if any aromas you noticed on the nose follow through as flavours on the palate. Now you can also assess the texture – is it thin like water, or thicker and oilier? You can check for tannins – dry, mouth-puckering flavours – and acidity. You can also check the length of the wine: how long its flavour lingers on the palate.

A List of the 100 Most-Common Aromas & Flavors in All Types of Wine.

“Wine Gathers all the Scents of Nature”

Don’t ask me who wrote this wine quote, I have just come up with it!

But if you look at the beautiful chart above, by Burgundy producer Bouchard Ainé & Filsaprico, and if you’ve ever heard a wine connoisseur talking about wine, you might be starting to be believe it is true.

Wine gathers aromas that are similar —if not identical— in their chemical composition to those found in pretty much any variety of fruit, but also nuts, herbs, spices, and even dairy products, bakes, mineral or animal sometimes!

Note: If you are more specifically interested in wine faults, I recommend you head over to our guide to the Top 6 Wine Faults: Their Causes & How to Identify them.

This is, for a large part, why many wine lovers, winos and amateurs think wine is one of the finest and most-interesting foods out there! —and yes, I am one of them. Yes too, wine IS food, and it’s a Frenchman talking! —.

Tasting and smelling a variety of different wine styles and grape varieties, one can be reminded of different ingredients, fruits or vegetables, grilled or roasted meats, cakes and jams, dishes like curry, and more. This is also part of the reason why wine pairs so well with food.

So, before we get to the list of the most common aromas found in wine (scroll a little further down if you’re after the Top 100 list), let’s have a quick look at how the aroma of wine is formed.

Watch the Top 60+ Aromas of Wine, Explained in Video:

How Can Wine Smell like Fruits… and other things?

In other words, where does wine get its aroma from?

In short, there are 3 types of aromas in wine, with 3 distinct origins:

1- Primary Aromas

This is the term used to describe the smells and flavors that come from the fruit itself, from the grapes (as opposed to the winemaking).

Different grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay) have intrinsically different aromas. If you were to taste the grape berries in a vineyard, you would find scents that would remind of other plants. Red grapes tend to exhibit aromas of red fruit such as berries, white grapes often display herbaceous tones, citrus, tropical or stonefruit characters.

Depending on the climate and the soil, whether it’s a cool climate or a warmer one, the primary aroma profile can vary greatly too.

Many producers try to preserve the integrity of primary aromas of their wine through careful winemaking techniques such as avoiding oxidation or using gravity. Yet fermentation brings additional layers of secondary flavors, as follows.
2- Secondary aromas

Those describe the smells acquired by the wine thanks to the winemaking process.

The natural flavors present in the grapes (primary aromas) combine and interact with the yeasts and bacteria that run the fermentation to create further aromatic complexity.

The alcoholic fermentation run by yeasts and transforming sugar into alcohol creates fruity aromatic compounds called esters bringing notes of pear, apricot, or peach.

The malolactic fermentation that follows, famously brings in notes of dairy products, cream, butter, and/or yogurt.

Furthermore, when a wine is fermented and/or aged in oak barrels, it acquires aromas of smoke, toast, vanilla, and sweet spices.
3- Tertiary aromas

They are developed in the bottle with age, as the wine’s molecules interact with each other and with oxygen, changing their aromatic profile.

Tertiary aromas are also called bouquet, or evolution bouquet because they are acquired slowly over time as the wine matures in bottle.

So, if you’ve been wondering:

“What is the difference between the aroma and the bouquet of a wine?”

This is your answer. The aroma of a wine is the entirety of its aromatic profile (everything it smells like), while the bouquet is the specific part of a wine’s smell that it developed after it was bottled.

The bouquet does originate neither from the grapes themselves, nor from the winemaking process, but from the natural chemical evolution of wine, from the interactions between molecules taking place in the bottle.

Typical tertiary aromas (or bouquet scents) are those of leather, truffle, some spices such as clove, nutmeg, or fennel, forest floor, wood ashes or grilled meats.
Which are the Most Common Aromas in Wine?

The 100 Most-Common Aromas in Wine, Ordered Alphabetically:


The aroma of almond in wine is part of the nut/nutty family, that generally originates from the winemaking process wither the ageing on lees or from contact with oak. It is common in barrel fermented white wines such as Chardonnays, or Méthode Traditionnelle sparklings such as Champagne wine.

The almond aroma or flavor is also commonly described in wine as Marzipan. It is used in typical tasting notes for wines made from Marsanne from the Rhône valley in France (which is generally blended with Roussanne and Viognier).


A sweet and delicate vegetal character, slightly floral at that.

If you’ve ever smelt the leaves of an acacia tree, you would have found a mellowed scent of honey combined with a hint of grassiness. The acacia aroma can also be experienced in acacia honey which has a particularly floral and slightly minty edge.

Star anise or Pastis liqueur are common descriptors for aromatic white wines, especially those of the herbal and grassy type such as Sauvignon Blanc or Riesling.

Star anise aromas are also present in spicy oaked red wines, such as Primitivo in Southern Italy (e.g. Manduria) or its American cousin grape Zinfandel from California, as well as in Shirazes from Australia like the Barossa Valley.
Apple (Red or Green)

An apple aroma is typically found in fruity white grape varieties such as Chenin Blanc, Pinot Gris, Grenache Blanc, Vermentino and many others. When the apple scent is perceived as mainly fruity, it is often described as ‘red apple’.

Green apple comes through in drier more mineral styles of white wines. It is also a character associated with wines in an oxidative style such as Fino sherries (e.g. Tio Pepe), some barrel aged whites and some oak-aged Blanc de Blancs Champagnes.


A primary fruit character present in many white wines, especially those made from grapes that are rich in terpenes such as Muscats or Gewurztraminer.

White wines from warm climates often feature stonefruit characters such as apricot (and/or peach). You will very often find this descriptor associated with wines from the Rhone Valley based on the Viognier grape.
Ashes (Wood Ashes)

The scent of ashes and/or wood ashes is associated with a mineral perception found in oak-aged and matured wines, particularly red wines. The smoky element provided by the ageing in barrel, when some red wine mature turns into a distinctive savory, slightly austere ashy edge.

A typical example is found with old Cabernet Sauvignon-based wines from the Médoc area of the Bordeaux region.

A very common secondary aroma, banana comes from an ester molecule produced during the alcoholic fermentation called isoamyl acetate.

It is commonly found in young wines that are released soon after harvest and fermentation, such as Beaujolais Nouveau and other Primeur wines.

The same molecule produced by yeasts during fermentation, especially at low temperature also gives some banana aromas to some beers.

Floral and slightly spicy citrus character, typical of some white grape varieties such as Muscats (Alexandria, Petit Grains, Bianco or Giallo) and other terpene-rich grapes (Gewurztraminer, Riesling).

For what it smells like, think of a bergamot tea or Earl Grey.

A similar aroma descriptor often-used is also Kumquat.

The smell of biscuit in wine comes from the combination of a toasty character originating from a contact with oak, and the buttery element acquired through an ageing on lees (e.g. lees-stirring).

A biscuity profile can be typically found in oak-aged Chardonnays and sparkling wines such as Prestige Cuvée Champagnes.

Blackberry is a typical aroma of ripe and rich red wines produced in warm climates.

It comes through fruity red wines made from dark sweet red grapes from many different grape varieties, Syrah, Zinfandel, Grenache, Argentina Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and many more.

Blackcurrant (Cassis or Blackcurrant Bud)

Much like blackberry (just above), the aroma of Blackcurrant is found in many rich red wines from around the world.

Blackcurrant however, is a very distinctive trait associated with the Cabernet Sauvignon grape. Try a Chilean Cabernet for an examplified version. I have also found that the wines from the Faugères AOP have a particularly pungent smell of cassis.

Cassis bud is an aroma both fruity and grassy given by molecules called methoxy-pyrazines (see also the capsicum entry) typical of both Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

A delicate and fragrant red berry aroma, found in many red wines and especially cool climate ones (e.g. Pinot Noir, Gamay, Barbera).

As described above (blackberry and blackcurrant), reds from warmer climates tend to exhibit berry notes of darker and riper berries than the acidic fresh blueberry.

You will also typically find notes of blueberry in rosé wines, and you may also identify it in some white wines made from red grapes (Blanc de Noirs).

The aroma of fresh brioche is aquired by wine during and after fermentation, particularly during the ageing on lees of white wines in barrel or in tank.

The breakdown of yeast cells after fermentation —a process scientifically called autolysis— liberates a combination of buttery and yeasty notes (the famous French Brioche bun is essentially a buttery yeast bread), especially when in contact with oak whose nutty and caramely tones amplify it.

Brioche is very common and typical of oak-aged Chardonnay wines, but also in sparkling wines made using the Traditional Method such as French Crémants (e.g. Crémants de Bordeaux, Crémants de Bourgogne, or Crémants d’Alsace) and oak-rich Champagne.
Related Read You Might Enjoy As Well:

The Complete Color Guide to Wine

But let’s go on with our list of the 100 most-common wine aromas:

Like boxwood, broom is a plant with a vegetal/herbal character typical of the expression of Sauvignon Blanc especially in Bordeaux and New Zealand.

Candied Fruit

A descriptor found and used in ripe wines made from richly sweet grapes in warmer climates like some dessert wines, Australian Shiraz, California Zinfandel.

This descriptor is particularly versatile, as virtually any fruit can be candied (berries, tropical fruits, stonefruit). It can therefore be used for a variety of aromas whenever a wine smells both fruity and particularly sweet and almost caramelized.
Capsicum (a.k.a. bell pepper, red or green)

Capsicum or bell pepper aroma originates from a family of herbaceous compounds common among the vegetal world called pyrazines (also found in tomatoes or potatoes to name just a few vegetables that contain them).

A form of pyrazine (methoxypyrazine is its name) is found on the skins of grapes before they reach full maturity, Pyrazines are therefore often considered a marker of ripeness of grapes, especially red grapes and winemakers try to let grapes ripen until the level of pyrazines has reached an undetectable level (especially on Merlot which can contain high levels of green capsicum character on unapropriate terroir).

However, bell pepper notes form a typical and expected part of the aromatic profile of certain grape varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. They also play an important role in the typical grassy notes we enjoy in crisp white wines such as Sauvignon Blanc.

Capsicum aroma come either as the clearly-vegetal feature given by notes of green capsicum, or the fruitier and less distinctive red capsicum.


Caramel aroma is most-often found in wines marked by the toasty character of oak. You will hear in tasting notes references to blond caramel —as in lightly colored and mild caramel— or its opposite version: smoky/nearly-burnt caramel.

But the most typical component in the aroma of the Merlot grape, called furaneol, also has a distinctive smell of caramel at high concentration when the grape are very ripe (the molecule smells like ripe cherry otherwise).

The aromatic seeds of cardamom, an exotic spice from a plant member of the ginger family, have been used as a condiment to spice up dishes in many Middle Eastern countries as well as in India, and in the preparation of medicines or perfumes all around the world.

Cardamom gives a relatively sweet but very pungent spicy aroma, limey and floral as well as slightly green and vegetal. In wine, the cardamom odour comes from the combination of a greenness character coming from the grapes, and the spiciness originating from both the ageing in barrel and the wine’s bouquet.

Look out for it in relatively cool climate reds that have been in contact with oak: Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, Barbera, some Syrah and Tempranillo.

Cedar Wood

Cedarwood is a rather specific (some would say esoteric!) example of the more general class of woody odours. But is very often quoted as a characteristic aroma of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape, along with blackcurrant, spices and tomato leaf.

Cedarwood trees traditionally came from the Mediterranean region and the Cedar is the iconic emblem of Lebanon. It has a characteristic resin scent that was appreciated as an insect repellent, and its essential oil has been used in perfumery for many centuries. Some red wines including Pinot Noirs and Nebbiolos also feature the aroma of cedar which is amplified by a maturation in oak.

Cherry (Dark Cherry, Morello, Griotte)

Chili Pepper

Chocolate (Cocoa)

A noticeable and important component of wines aged in oak barrels.

Often combined with vanilla, caramel, or coffee, chocolate or cocoa are part of the torrefaction smells family. They add a sense of sweetness, darkness and depth to wines.

The term chocolate would be used for wines that are more sweet-smelling/tasting, while dark chocolate or cocoa generally describe more profound, savorer, and more bitter wines.

While we’re only talking about natural wine flavors here, it is interesting to note that some wines are infused with chocolate flavors.

Other naturally feature such intense chocolate notes that they use it in their wine names and marketing like South Africa’s Darlings Cellars Chocoholic Pinotage.


Eugenol is a molecule found in toasted oak —and therefore in oak barrels— and that is also the main aroma compound found in cloves.

This secondary character is therefore infused into the wine during the barrel maturation but is only perceived strongly when combined with the primary notes of certain grape varieties, such as Pinot Noir or Merlot.

Cinnamon is a pungent sweet spice, generally found in oak-aged wines, especially old rich aged wines such as Portuguese Ports, Banyuls, or Maury.

You may also occasionally find it in other ripe high-alcohol reds.
Coconut (Bourbon Whiskey)

Aroma of coconut are infused in wine through ageing in American oak barrels.

The White Oak species (Quercus Alba) originating from Northern America is indeed much richer in a compound called whisky lactone than European oak tress (those generally called French oak such as Quercus robur and Quercus petrae), giving wines and many spirits an aroma/flavor of coconut.

American Bourbon Whiskey is also aged in American oak casks which is why it exhibits these powerful coconut scents you may also find in California wines or those from Rioja.

Coffee is an aroma of torrefaction generally associated with the contact of wine with oak (ageing in oak barrel or in oak vat).

Heavily-toasted oak, American oak in particular, imparts dark toasted scents such as coffee, caramel, or dark cocoa.

Eucalyptus (gumtree)

Lifted aromas similar to those of mint, with a distinctive edge reminding of the typical Australian bush’s gumtrees.

Those are found in wines outside of Australia too, such as in some California Zinfandels, but you will also typically find them in Aussie wines made form vineyards that are, more often than not, surrounded by Eucalyptus trees.

Earthy and slightly vegetal character, found in aged wines, particularly reds. See the ‘forest floor entry’ below.

An aromatic component in between spicy and vegetal character. The scent is close to the one described as star anise, but with a fresher, mintier and more lifted grassy edge.

Fennel is indeed a bulbous vegetable with a fresh slightly bitter taste, also commonly found all around the Mediterranean Sea in Southern Europe and Northern Africa and the Middle East.

Fennel is found in dry and slightly grassy white wines such as those made from Verdejo in Spain (Rueda), the Rolle-based (Vermentino) wines of Provence and Italy and some Chardonnay-based Champagnes.

In reds, fennel may come through the aromatic profile in Sicilian Etna Rosso wines, (Nerello Mascalese), some Nebbiolos (Barbaresco and Barolo), Rhone Syrah, or Gamay Beaujolais.

Being a rich and ripe fruit, fig most often comes in wines from warmer climates made from generously ripe fruits, in both reds and whites.

‘Fresh fig’ is the descriptor used when the aroma remains fresh and fruity. While ‘dried fig’ comes through in many rich and sweet dessert wines, such as Sauternes wines, Ports, Pedro Ximenez Sherry, or Fortified Muscats.
Flint (Silex)

A mineral character found in dry styles of wines.

The aroma comes through more obviously in white wines but can be perceived in dry reds as well. It is commonly associated stwith wines from grapes grown on pour limestone or stony soils such as the Sauvignon Blanc from Sancerre or Pouilly.

Flint can also be associated with a light reduction in wines that have been vinified with very little contact with oxygen. While a hint of flinty reduction can be appreciated in wine for providing a sense of minerality, if the reductive character is too pronounced, edging on cabbage or garlic, it is considered a fault.

For the background, Silex is form of ground stone, a nearly pure form of silica or silicate, also called flint.

Forrest Floor (Undergrowth)

If you taste with French people any aged wine, you will always hear them talk about a ‘sous-bois’ character, which translates into forest floor.

Common related descriptors in English include mushroom, earth, humus, or earthy. These aromatic characters are found in aged wines that have developed a bouquet with evolution in bottle.

Earthy aromas may also be related to the presence of a molecule called Geosmin on the grapes during harvest, if the bunches were affected by the Botrytis fungus. It was a common fault in Sauternes wines. But modern winemakers are particularly cautious and are now effective at avoiding it.

An animal character acquired by wines through ageing in bottle, part of the bouquet. Imagine the smell of a furry animal such as a bear (don’t get too close of one to find out what they smell like) or a goat.

It could be a negative attribute as a dominant note and even be qualified as a fault in wine, but as part of a complex evolution bouquet, the fur aroma can add depth.

Grapefruit is obviously part of the citrus primary fruit characters.

Its aroma is very typically found in Sauvignon Blanc wines such as those of Bordeaux wines, Chile or New Zealand. As far as white wines, you will also commonly find a grapefruit character in Riesling.

Many dry rosé wines, those that are not overly sweet and fruity like in Provence, France, openly exhibit this character too.

Cool climate Pinot Noirs (Burgundy, Germany, New Zealand, Russian River and Carneros, or Champagne Blanc de Noirs) sometimes feature notes of pink grapefruit.

Fun Fact: I would argue that the aroma of grapefruit is in fact, and generally speaking, a very welcome and pleasant companion to wine, hence its common use for making sangria, and its success as an additive for making rosé-flavored wines (called rosé pamplemousse in French, hugely popular in France).

As in freshly-cut grass. This character can remind of a spring meadow and appear quite floral. Or, it literally can smell like a lawnmower after the job. Tomato leaf is a related aroma.

They are both common in some crisp and acidic white wines such as Sauvignon Blanc or Portugal’s vinho verde.

Vegetal and herbal character typically found in Sauvignon Blanc, particularly those of the grassy type like in Marlborough, New Zealand.



Honey (Mead)


Honeysuckle is a delicate floral aroma similar to the scent of jasmine, but one giving a sense of both sweetness and a hint of grassiness to wines. Because it is a discrete scent, it is only detectable in white wines that are not too aromatic to which it adds a floral finesse.

I have found honeysuckle featured in Chardonnay-based wines, as well as in subtly-flavored dry rosés, but you will find it many styles of restrained white wine grapes such as Torrontes, Grillo, Roussanne, Sylvaner, or Glera (Prosecco bubblies).

Iodine is a natural chemical element (atomic number 53) especially present in sea water, and in sea salt as far as our nutrition is concerned. Most of the world’s iodine is found in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed.

This is why the term iodine is often used to describe a wine somewhat reminding the smell of a sea breeze or a coastal mist, or the mineral slightly-fishy odor of sea water.

Many would say that the minerality provided by an iodine aroma comes from the terroir vines are grown on rather than the type of grapes.

Limestone, slate, volcanic or flinty soils, as well as environmentally-friendly viticultural practices aimed at expressing the genuine terroir are generally considered to provide such mineral character.

Many would argue that iodine tones are more often found in wines that are organic, made from biodynamically-grown grapes, or from coastal vineyards.



In the wine descriptors vocabulary, the juniper note is classified as a botanical and/or herbal character (like thyme, rosemary, lemongrass, sage or basil).

The aroma come from a natural greenness and spiciness originating from the grapes themselves in wines that are not overly ripe and opulent. The scent can be amplified by the spiciness provided by an ageing in oak.

You will typically find juniper in Syrah wines such as those of Northern Rhone, Sonoma County or New Zealand’s Hawkes Bay. Some Nebbiolo wines from Piedmont, Italy may feature it, as well Portugal’s Douro Valley reds.

Kerosene (Petrol)

A scent of ‘gasoline’ in wine is commonly associated and considered a typical characteristic of the Riesling grape variety.

It is more commonly experienced from Riesling wines grown in cool climate on pour rocky terroirs, such as some found in Germany, Alsace, France, or New Zealand, rather than in warmer ones, say Australia, California or Chile.

An aroma of petrol in a wine may sound terrible! And it can be if the note is too dominant, especially in aged Rieslings. But as a discrete component to a wider palette of aromas, and in combination with the other typical scents of Riesling (lime, apple, honeysuckle), a touch of gasoline can add a positive mineral element to a wine.

The term Kerosene is often used to describe this peculiar family of aroma, because the odor of petrol in wine is generally not the heavy and sticky asphalt one, but rather a refined and purified lighter version as is aviation fuel.

Notably, renowned Rhone wine producer, Michel Chapoutier said that “Riesling should never smell of petrol. That is a result of a mistake during winemaking” and that “the petrol characteristic, which is often prized amongst Riesling aficionados, is a result of decomposition of the veins within the grape. These veins become more fragile as the grape matures.” (Source: Decanter.com)

Apart from Riesling, you may find an aroma of petrol/kerosene in white wines made from Pinot Gris, Sylvaner, Verdejo, or Vermentino (Rolle).
Kirsch Liqueur

Kiwi Fruit

Part of the tropical fruit family, the Kiwi fruit has both an upfront fruity character and a grassy edge. Most common in dry and crisp white wines such as Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, and Albarinho.


Aromas of lime, like those of lemon, are commonly found in many wines, especially whites.

They are often associated with many styles such as Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Prosecco, or Champagne.

You may occasionally find them in red and rosé wines, particularly those made from cool climate Pinot Noir.

The scent of lime is greener and less fruity than the aroma of lemon, and is often found in crispier and grassier wines.


An aroma of leather is found in red wines that have been aged in oak barrel, and is amplified overtime as the wine ages in bottles.

Leather is a secondary and/or a tertiary aroma, in the sense that it comes from the combination of the oak influence during the winemaking process, and the ageing of the wine and the development of its bouquet. I don’t think any grape variety as natural notes of leather as a primary aroma.

Typically, you will found notes of leather in aged reds made from Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon (like and old Bordeaux wine or one from Napa Valley), or Pinot Noir, although most aged red wines could develop such profile.
Lemon: lemon liqueur (limoncello)

Linden Tea

A subtle and delicate floral and slightly vegetal aroma, most commonly found in gently flavored white wines such as Soave (Garganega), Roussanne, or Vermentino.

Lychee (also spelled “litchi”) is a tropical fruit native to southern China.

The aroma of litchi reminds somewhat of a fresh and fragrant grape, think of a white grape juice with mild blond sweet flavors and a floral touch like a rose would smell.

Lychees are rich in compounds called terpenes, which are also found in many flowers as well as in aromatic grapes such as Gewürztramialner and Muscats. The fermentation augments the pungency of these primary fruit characters thanks to the yeasts hydrolyzing some of the terpenes in the grape juice and making them available to our senses.

Many white dessert wines such as Sauternes, white port and all the fortified Muscat wines (Rivesaltes or Lunel in France, Pantelleria in Italy, Rutherglen in Australia) have scents of litchi.





Mineral is an elusive term that’s been the subject of many discussions and controversies over the past decade or so, since many wine connoisseurs are looking for wines that are more authentic and expressing genuine terroir characteristics therefore somewhat revealing more the soil they were grown on.

Mineral might be more of a flavor or an overall sensation provided by certain wines, a combination of acidity, saltiness, savoriness and grip from the phenolics rather than an actual ‘aroma’.

I’ll refer you to top experts disserting on the subject, such as the brilliant article by Jancis Robinson MW: The elusive M-word and What do we mean by minerality?a

You know what mint smells like right?

Some would call it peppermint if that helps.

But you may be wondering is which wines smell like mint?

The answer is that many (relatively) do, but mint is always a subtle lifted spicy sensation going on in the background of the aromatic profile. No wine pungently smells like mint!

Examples of wines that tend to be minty include California Zinfandel, some aged Cabernet Sauvignon (like in Bordeaux’ aged claret or Napa Valley’s Meritage and Malbec), Australian reds, or Carricante.




Oak is a generic term used to describe a family of aromas provided by the contact of the wine with oak barrels or oak alternatives (staves and chips) during the winemaking process.

Many of the aromas/flavors infused into a wine from oak are listed in separate entries on this page, such as vanilla, clove, caramel, coffee, sandalwood, pepper, toast, tobacco, hazelnut, or coconut.

Here are a couple examples of tasting notes for wines that are very oaky: Fiegl Leopold Merlot (red) and Alejandro Fernandez Alejairén (white).
Olive (black or green)


Passion Fruit

Part of the tropical fruit family of aromas, passion fruit is a primary character mainly found in ripe white grape varieties.

It is very typical and pungently smelt in Sauvignon Blanc wines, particularly from New Zealand, but can also be detected as a component of Chardonnay or Riesling.



Pepper (black, white, or green)

Pine (pine needles or pine resin)






Raisin (dried grapes, sultanas)



Rose petal


Scrubland (Garrigue)


Smoke/Smoky aroma is generally caused by the wine being in contact with oak during the maturation barrel (secondary aroma). Occasionally, it may be considered coming from the grapes themselves when grown on dark volcanic soils such as the Sicilian wines grown on the Etna volcano.
Spices (mixed)


Sweets (Lollies)


Toasted Bread (Toast)






Wax (Beeswax)

Much like walnut, wax is an aromatic trait acquired and particularly present in aged white wines.

If you notice a waxy character in a relatively young white, it may have been affected by premature oxidation. But it is a common component of the bouquet of evolved white wines or of any wine submitted to oxidation over time (Sherry, an aged Hunter Valley Riesling, old Burgundy Chardonnay, etc.).

The term beeswax indicates a more floral, and arguably more enjoyable waxy aroma in a wine that can blend in harmoniously in the complex nutty and spicy profile of a mature white wine or an aged Champagne.

2019 (MMXIX) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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2019 has been assigned as International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly[1] given that it coincides with the 150th anniversary of its creation by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869.



January 1
All works published in 1923 except sound recordings (see 2022 scheduled events) enter the public domain in the United States, the first works to do so since the passage of the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act.[2]
Jair Bolsonaro begins his four-year term as President of Brazil.
Unmanned space probe New Horizons makes a close approach of the Kuiper belt object (KBO) 486958 Arrokoth at 05:33 UTC.
Qatar withdraws from OPEC.
Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Austria.[3]
January 2 – Great Belt Bridge rail accident: A DSB express passenger train is hit by a semi-trailer from a passing cargo train on the western bridge of the Great Belt Fixed Link in Denmark, killing eight people and making it the deadliest rail accident in the country since 1988.[4]
January 3 – Chinese probe Chang’e 4 becomes the first human-made object to land on the far side of the Moon.[5]
January 5 – Bartholomew I of Constantinople issues a formal decree granting independence to the Orthodox Church of Ukraine from the Russian Orthodox Church.[6]
January 6 – Muhammad V of Kelantan abdicates the federal throne as the 15th monarch of Malaysia, making him the first Malaysian monarch to do so.[7]
January 7 – A faction of the Armed Forces of Gabon announces a coup d’état. Gabon’s government later declares that it has reasserted control.
January 10 – Venezuela enters a constitutional crisis as Juan Guaidó and the National Assembly declare incumbent President Nicolás Maduro “illegitimate” and start the process of attempting to remove him.[8]
January 15 – Nairobi DusitD2 complex attack: A terrorist attack at an upscale hotel and office complex in Nairobi, Kenya, kills 21 people (including 5 attackers) and injures 28 more.[9]
January 17 – A vehicle-bound suicide bomb attack in Bogotá, Colombia, kills 22 people and injures 68 others, making it the deadliest attack on the Colombian capital since 2003.[10]
January 18 – Fuel thieves rupture a pipeline in Tlahuelilpan, Mexico, and a subsequent explosion kills at least 137 people and injures dozens more.[11]
January 19 – A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hits Tongoy, Coquimbo Region in Chile, causing two deaths and as many as 200,000 people left without power.[12] Despite its moderate magnitude, since it was an intraplate earthquake, it caused some serious damage in La Serena and nearby cities.
January 21 – 2019 Piper PA-46 Malibu crash: An aircraft carrying new Cardiff City F.C. footballer Emiliano Sala and pilot David Ibbotson en route from Nantes, France, to Cardiff, Wales, goes missing over the English Channel. Sala’s body is recovered on February 7.[13]
January 23 – 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis: Thousands of people protest in favor of disputed interim President Juan Guaidó. Several people are killed, and President Maduro severs diplomatic ties with the United States.[14]
January 25 – A mine tailings dam breaks in the Brazilian city of Brumadinho, in the state of Minas Gerais. At least 248 people are killed, with 22 missing.[15]
January 27 – Two bombs at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Jolo, Philippines, kill at least 20 people and leave more than 100 others injured.[16]
January 28 – The U.S. Justice Department charges Chinese tech firm Huawei with multiple counts of fraud, raising U.S.–China tensions.[17]
February 1 – U.S. President Donald Trump confirms that the U.S. will leave the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty of 1987.[18] The next day, Russia follows suit with suspension of its obligations to the treaty.[19]
February 3 – Pope Francis arrives in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, becoming the first pope to visit the Arabian Peninsula.[20]
February 5 – The Taliban kills at least 47 people in attacks while Afghan–Taliban peace talks are taking place in Moscow. 12 others are injured.[21]
February 6 – The Freedom House NGO states that Hungary was no longer a free country, making it the first such country in the European Union to be so.[22]
February 7 – 2019 Haitian protests: Anti-government protests demanding the resignation of Haitian President Jovenel Moïse begin in several cities across the country.[23]
February 12 – The Republic of Macedonia renames itself the Republic of North Macedonia, ending a decades-old dispute with Greece, paving the way for its integration into NATO and the European Union.[24]
February 13 – A suicide bomb attack on a vehicle kills at least 27 Revolutionary Guards in southeastern Iran.[25] It is one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in Iran in years.[26]
February 14 – A suicide bomb attack on a vehicle convoy in Indian-administered Kashmir kills at least 40 Indian security personnel, making it the deadliest attack on India’s security personnel in Kashmir in three decades.[27]
February 20 – A major fire in Dhaka, Bangladesh kills at least 78 people.[28]
February 21 – SpaceIL launches the Beresheet probe, the world’s first privately financed mission to the Moon.[29][30]
February 23
2019 Nigerian general election, for the President; all 360 seats in the House of Representatives and all 110 seats in the Senate.
2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis: President Maduro severs diplomatic ties with Colombia as humanitarian aid attempts to enter the country across the border.[31]
February 26–27 – The Indian Air Force launches airstrikes on purported militant camps in Balakot, Pakistan; according to Indian claims, “a very large number of … terrorists, trainers, senior commanders and groups of jihadis” were killed,[32] although Pakistan denied the claims[33] and a number of neutral sources suggest that this was not the case.[34][35] The following day, Pakistan retaliated, leading to the shooting down of an Indian MiG-21 fighter, whose pilot was repatriated on March 1.[36] The incidents led to the 2019 India–Pakistan standoff.
February 27 – Ramses Station rail disaster: A train smashes into a barrier inside Ramses Station in Cairo, Egypt, causing an explosion and a fire, killing 25 people and injuring 40 others.[37]
February 27–28 – The 2019 North Korea–United States summit is held in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is the second summit between United States President Donald Trump and the North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un.
March 3
An unmanned demonstration flight of the new crew capable version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, intended to carry American astronauts into space, achieves successful autonomous docking with the International Space Station.[38]
The 2019 Estonian parliamentary election takes place, for all 101 seats in the Riigikogu.[39]
March 5 – A second case of sustained remission from HIV is reported, ten years after the Berlin Patient.[40][41]
March 6 – 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis: Venezuela expels German ambassador Daniel Kriener for his alleged meddling in internal affairs.[42]
March 10 – Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a Boeing 737 MAX 8 bound for Nairobi, crashes shortly after takeoff from Addis Ababa killing all 157 people on board.[43] All Boeing 737 MAX aircraft are subsequently grounded worldwide.[44]
March 12 – Cargo ship Grande America sinks after it caught fire on March 10 in the Bay of Biscay, approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) west of France, causing a 2,200-tonne oil spill.[45]
March 13
March 2019 North American blizzard: A winter storm completes its explosive intensification over the Southern Rocky Mountains region, which began the day before, becoming a powerful “bomb cyclone” and triggering severe blizzard conditions across much of the Southwestern and Central United States.[46][47]
Australian Cardinal George Pell is sentenced to six years in prison for sexually abusing two choirboys in 1996.[48]
March 15
51 people are killed and 50 others injured in terrorist attacks on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand: Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre, both of which were the target of shootings by Australia-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant. It is the deadliest mass shooting and terrorist attack in New Zealand history and described by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern as “one of New Zealand’s darkest days”.[49] Subsequently, Facebook announced they had disabled 1.5 million videos of the gunman’s rampage.[50]
Cyclone Idai makes landfall on Mozambique, causing at least 1,073 fatalities, as well as causing mass flooding and power outages in southern Africa.[51]
March 19
Nursultan Nazarbayev resigns as President of Kazakhstan after 29 years in office and appoints Kassym-Jomart Tokayev as acting president.[52] Astana is renamed Nur-Sultan the following day in his honor.[53]
American Karen Uhlenbeck is the first woman to win the Abel Prize for outstanding contributions to mathematics.[54][55]
March 20
Europe’s antitrust regulators fine Google 1.49 billion euros ($1.7 billion) for freezing out rivals in the online advertising business. The ruling brings to nearly $10 billion the fines imposed against Google by the European Union.[56]
Disney acquires the rights to 21st Century Fox leaving out a few assets to be spun-off to the newly formed Fox Corporation.[importance?]
March 21 – A major explosion at a chemical plant in Xiangshui, Jiangsu, China, kills at least 78 people and injures more than 600 others. Its powerful impact registered as an artificial earthquake.[57]
March 23
The final territory of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, located in Al-Baghuz Fawqani, Syria, is liberated.[58]
An estimated 400,000 people march in central London in protest against Brexit.[59][60]
March 24
The 2019 Thai general election takes place, for all 500 seats in the House of Representatives.
A four-page summary of Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s report into U.S. President Donald Trump’s 2016 election campaign is published by the U.S. Attorney General William Barr. It concludes that there was no collusion with Russia – the basis of the investigation – but on the issue of obstruction of justice states: “While this report does not conclude that the president committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him”.[61]
March 26 – The European Parliament votes by 348 to 278 in favour of the EU Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, which expands legal liability for websites and includes the controversial Article 13.[62][63]
March 31 – Taiwan scrambles its fighter aircraft after two Chinese jets crossed a maritime border between the two nations. Just the day before, Japan had similarly scrambled its jets when the Chinese flew between two Japanese islands, Miyako and Okinawa.[64]
April 2 – Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigns as President of Algeria amid widespread protests, after nearly two decades in office.[65]
April 4 – Second Libyan Civil War: The Libyan National Army (LNA) launches a surprise offensive in western Libya, moving units towards the Government of National Accord-held capital Tripoli and capturing Gharyan. The LNA says that the operation, ordered by General Khalifa Haftar, is aimed at “cleansing the western zone from terrorist groups”.[66][67]
April 9 – The April 2019 Israeli legislative election takes place, for all 120 seats in the Knesset.
April 10
Scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope project announce the first ever image of a black hole, located in the centre of the M87 galaxy.[68][69]
Fossil fragments found in the Callao Cave in the Philippines reveal the existence of the Homo luzonensis species of humans. The species is named after the island where it was discovered, Luzon.[70]
April 11
WikiLeaks co-founder Julian Assange is arrested after seven years in Ecuador’s embassy in London.[71][72]
Amid mass protests, Omar al-Bashir is deposed as President of Sudan in a coup d’état, after nearly 30 years in office.[73]
The 2019 Indian general election begins, along with elections in six states. Counting takes place on 23 May.[74]
April 15 – During Holy Week, a major fire engulfs Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, resulting in the roof and main spire collapsing.[75][76]
April 16 – The Howse Peak avalanche kills three noted mountaineers: Austrians Hansjörg Auer and David Lama, and Canadian Jess Roskelley.[77]
April 17
The 2019 Indonesian general election takes place; for the President, 575 seats in the People’s Representative Council, and 136 seats in the Regional Representative Council.
At least 28 people are killed in a bus crash on the Portuguese island of Madeira.[78]
April 18
The full 448-page report on the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States Presidential Election (the Mueller Report) is released in redacted form.[79]
NepaliSat-1 is launched. It is Nepal’s first ever research satellite to be sent into space.[80][81]
April 21
A series of bomb attacks occur at eight locations in Sri Lanka, including three churches, four hotels and one housing complex in Colombo, on Easter Sunday, leaving 259 people dead and over 500 injured.[82][83][84][85] This is the first major terrorist attack in the country since the Sri Lankan Civil War ended in 2009.[86]
Comedian Volodymyr Zelensky is elected President of Ukraine in a runoff election. Zelensky previously portrayed a fictional Ukrainian president in the television series Servant of the People.[87]
April 25 – North Korean leader Kim Jong-un visits Russia to hold a series of summits with Russian leaders, including President Vladimir Putin.[88]
April 26 – Avengers: Endgame is released in theaters, breaking many box-office records, including becoming the highest grossing movie of all time.
April 28
The 2019 Spanish general election takes place, for all 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of the 266) seats in the Senate. The PSOE, under Pedro Sánchez, wins the most seats, but not an outright majority.[89]
Victor Vescovo achieves the deepest dive of any human in history, as he reaches Challenger Deep within the Mariana Trench, at a depth of 10,928 m (35,853 ft).[90][91]
April 29 – Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the elusive leader of the Islamic State terrorist organization, appears in undated footage released by the group, his first appearance on video since 2014. In the video, he references the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, indicating it was filmed very recently.[92]
April 30
Emperor Akihito of Japan abdicates from his throne, the first abdication by a Japanese monarch in almost two centuries. The abdication ends the Heisei era of Japan and ushers in the Reiwa era with new emperor Naruhito ascending the throne on 1 May.[93][94]
2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis: Venezuelan opposition leader and disputed interim President Juan Guaidó leads an attempted uprising against President Nicolás Maduro.[95]
May 1
King Vajiralongkorn of Thailand marries his personal bodyguard Suthida Tidjai – a commoner – in a surprise ceremony, making her queen consort of Thailand.[96]
Russian President Vladimir Putin signs into law a controversial “sovereign internet” bill that allows Russian authorities to better monitor internet routing and to steer Russian internet traffic away from foreign servers. Proponents of the bill say it ensures Russian internet security and decreases dependence on foreign servers while critics argue it gives new censorship powers to the government and is a part of a global trend of cyber-balkanization.[97]
May 3 – The number of deaths from the Kivu Ebola outbreak exceeds 1,000. It is the second deadliest Ebola outbreak in history, only surpassed by the West African Ebola virus epidemic of 2013–2016.[98]
May 3–6 – May 2019 Gaza–Israel clashes: The Gaza–Israel conflict escalates after the Israeli military launches airstrikes into Gaza killing more than 20 Palestinians including a pregnant woman and a toddler following the injury of two soldiers from Gazan sniper fire.
May 4–6 – Coronation of King Vajiralongkorn of Thailand.
May 5 – Aeroflot Flight 1492 crash-lands and bursts into flames at Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, killing 41 of the 78 people on board.[99]
May 6
In its first report since 2005, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) warns that biodiversity loss is “accelerating”, with over a million species now threatened with extinction; the decline of the natural living world is “unprecedented” and largely a result of human actions, according to the report.[100][101]
Syrian Civil War: The Syrian Army launches a major ground offensive against one of the last rebel strongholds in the country.[102]
May 8 – A British teenager, Isabelle Holdaway, 17, is reported to be the first patient ever to receive a genetically modified phage therapy to treat a drug-resistant infection.[103][104]
May 10 – Amid ongoing negotiations, the United States’ 25 percent tariff hike on $200 billion worth of Chinese imports takes effect, escalating tensions between the two nations in the ongoing China–United States trade war.[105]
May 12 – May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident: Four commercial ships, including two Saudi Aramco oil tankers, are damaged near the port of Fujairah in the Gulf of Oman.[106] The United Arab Emirates claims the incident was a “sabotage attack”, while an early United States assessment reportedly blames Iran for the attack. The incident occurs during a time of regional tensions between the U.S. and Iran, with the U.S. just weeks prior deploying strategic bombers, a carrier strike group and other military assets to the Persian Gulf following intelligence reports of an alleged plot by Iran to attack U.S. forces in the region.[107]
May 13
The 2019 Philippine general election takes place, for all 297 seats in the House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Senate.
Prosecutors in Sweden reopen the rape allegation investigation against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. Swedish prosecutors mention their intent to seek extradition of Assange from the United Kingdom after he has served his 50-week prison sentence for skipping bail.[108]
May 14–18 – The Eurovision Song Contest 2019 takes place in Tel Aviv, Israel, and is won by Dutch entrant Duncan Laurence with the song “Arcade”.
May 17
Taiwan’s parliament becomes the first in Asia to legalise same-sex marriage.[109]
Ibiza affair: A corruption scandal involving the Vice-Chancellor of Austria Heinz-Christian Strache and deputy leader of the Freedom Party Johann Gudenus offering to fix state contracts with a woman posing as the niece of a Russian oligarch at a 2017 meeting in Spain leads to the collapse of the coalition government and calls for snap elections.[110]
May 18 – 2019 Australian federal election: Scott Morrison’s Liberal/National Coalition Government is narrowly re-elected,[111] defeating the Labor Party led by Bill Shorten.
May 19
Eleven people are killed in a shooting at a bar in Belém, Brazil.[112]
China–United States trade war: Google pulls Android update support for Huawei phones, as well as the Google Play Store and Gmail apps, after the Chinese technology company was blacklisted by the United States.[113]
May 20 – The redefinition of the SI system of measurement adopted by the majority of countries in the world takes effect.[114]
May 23–26 – The 2019 European Parliament election takes place. The election has a 51 percent voter turnout, the highest since the first direct elections in 1979.
May 23
2019 Indian general election: Narendra Modi secures a landslide win, with his party BJP alone gaining 303 of the 543 seats in parliament, and his political alliance winning 353 seats of the 543.[115][116][117]
Botswana lifts its five-year prohibition on elephant hunting.[118]
May 24
British Prime Minister Theresa May announces her resignation as Conservative leader, effective June 7, 2019.
A prison riot in Acarigua, Venezuela, leaves 29 prisoners dead and 19 guards injured.[119]
May 26–27 – Amazonas prison massacres: More than 50 prisoners are killed in a series of riots at four different prisons in Amazonas, Brazil.[120]
May 27 – U.S. President Donald Trump, during an official state visit to Japan, is the first foreign leader to meet with Japanese emperor Naruhito.[121]
May 29
Former European Court of Justice judge Egils Levits is elected the 10th President of Latvia.
Sinking of Hableány: The Hableány, a sightseeing river cruise ship on the Danube in Budapest, Hungary, collides with another vessel and sinks with two Hungarian crew members and 33 South Korean tourists on board. At least 25 people have been found dead and 3 others remain missing.[122]
Less than two months after the April 9 Israeli legislative elections, the Israeli Knesset dissolves itself and votes to hold new elections in September 17, after Benjamin Netanyahu failed to assemble a coalition government within the allotted time.[123]
May 30 – July 14 – The 2019 Cricket World Cup is held in England and Wales, and is won by England.
May 30 – South Korean newspaper The Chosun Ilbo reports that North Korea executed nuclear envoy Kim Hyok-chol and four other diplomats in March after the failed February Hanoi summit with the United States. The newspaper also reports that Kim Yong-chol, a top aide to Kim Jong-un, was sentenced to hard labor during the purge.[124]
June 2
Nearly five years after abdication, King Juan Carlos I of Spain retires from public life.[125]
2019 San Marino referendum: Sammarinese voters vote to end discrimination based on sexual orientation and initiate a popular legislative initiative for the reform of the electoral system.[126]
June 3 – Khartoum massacre: More than 100 people are killed when Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militiamen storm and open fire on a protest camp outside of a military headquarters in Khartoum, Sudan.[127]
June 3–5 – U.S. President Donald Trump makes a state visit to the United Kingdom, meeting with Queen Elizabeth II and outgoing Prime Minister Theresa May. It is the first official state visit to the U.K. by a sitting U.S. president since 2011. Trump also attends D-Day commemorative ceremonies.[128]
June 5–8 – Chinese President Xi Jinping makes a state visit to Russia, where he also attends the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum.[129]
June 5 – The 2019 Danish general election takes place, for all 179 seats in the Folketing.
June 6
2018–19 Sudanese protests: The African Union suspends Sudan’s membership “with immediate effect” after the Khartoum massacre.[130]
Following results from the 2019 Finnish parliamentary election, a new government is formed consisting of 58 percent women.[131]
June 7 – British Prime Minister Theresa May resigns as leader of the Conservative Party.
June 7 – July 7 – The 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup is held in France and is won by the United States.
June 9
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: Over 1 million people in Hong Kong protest against proposed legislation regarding extradition to China. It is the largest protest in Hong Kong since the 1997 handover.[132]
A large explosive eruption of Mount Sinabung in Indonesia sends a 7,000-meter ash column, generating a pyroclastic flow 3–3.5 kilometers long towards the south and southeast of the mountain.[133][134]
June 11 – Botswana decriminalizes homosexuality.[135]
June 12
The Supreme Court of Ecuador rules in favor of same-sex marriage, making it legal throughout the country.[136]
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: The Hong Kong government and police controversially declare that the protest has “turned into a riot”.[137][138][139]
June 13 – June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident: Two oil tankers are attacked near the Strait of Hormuz while transiting the Gulf of Oman amid heightened tension between Iran and the United States, with the latter blaming the former for the incident.[140]
June 14 – Jane Goodall, British primatologist, is awarded the 2019 Luxembourg Prize for Outstanding Environmental Peace.[141][importance?][unreliable source?]
June 15 – 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: Hong Kong announces it will indefinitely suspend the controversial extradition bill, but protests continue, this time calling for the total withdrawal of the bill and the resignation of Chief Executive Carrie Lam.[142]
June 16 – A large-scale power outage hits Argentina, Uruguay and parts of Paraguay, affecting nearly 50 million people.[143]
June 17 – A triple suicide blast kills 30 and injures 40 in Borno, Nigeria, at a hall where people were watching a football match.
June 18 – The U.S. sends an additional 1,000 troops to the Middle East as tensions build with Iran.[144]
June 19 – Four men are charged with murdering the 298 passengers and crew of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, the airliner shot down while flying over Ukraine in July 2014.[145]
June 20–21 – Chinese President Xi Jinping makes a state visit to North Korea. It is his first visit to the country as president and the first visit to North Korea by a Chinese leader since Hu Jintao’s visit 14 years prior.[146]
June 20 – June 2019 Iranian shoot-down of American drone: Iran shoots down a United States RQ-4 Global Hawk surveillance drone over the Strait of Hormuz after claiming it violated their airspace. The U.S. claims it was shot down in international airspace in an “unprovoked attack”.[147]
June 22 – 2019 Amhara Region coup d’état attempt: In the Amhara Region of Ethiopia, regional president Ambachew Mekonnen and national-military chief of staff Se’are Mekonnen are assassinated.[148]
June 27 – Angara Airlines Flight 200 overruns the runway during landing and collides with a building, killing the captain and flight engineer, and injuring a further 22 people. Only 45 people survive the crash at Nizhneangarsk Airport, Russia.[149]
June 30 – During a trilateral gathering at the Panmunjom Truce Village between South Korean President Moon Jae-in, North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un and United States President Donald Trump, Trump becomes the first sitting U.S. president to cross the Korean Demilitarized Zone and enter North Korea. Trump and Kim also agree to restart stalled denuclearization negotiations.[150]
July – The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports, on August 15, that July 2019 was the hottest month on record globally, at 0.95 °C (1.71 °F) above the 20th-century average.[151][152][153]
July 1
Japan resumes commercial whaling after a 30-year moratorium, following its withdrawal from the International Whaling Commission.[154][155]
Japan announces tightening high-tech exports to South Korea, thus begin the trade dispute between the two countries.[156]
The International Atomic Energy Agency confirms that Iran has breached the limit on its stockpile of enriched uranium.[157]
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: During the annual July 1 protests that mark the anniversary of the British handover of the city to China, a group of a few hundred protesters stormed the Hong Kong legislature, defacing various portraits and destroying furniture before being dispersed by police using tear gas.[158]
A fire on the Russian deep-diving submarine Losharik kills 14 crew members. Submarine commander Denis Dolonsky was among those killed.[159]
July 2 – A total solar eclipse occurs over South America. It is the 58th solar eclipse from Saros cycle 127.[160][161]
July 3 – 2019 Tajoura migrant center airstrike: An airstrike by Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar’s Libyan National Army hits the Tajoura Detention Center outside Tripoli, Libya, while hundreds of people are inside the facility, killing at least 53 of them and injures 130 others.[162]
July 7 – The 2019 Greek legislative election takes place. Leader of the Opposition Kyriakos Mitsotakis, from New Democracy, wins the election and is sworn in Prime Minister as left-wing incumbent Alexis Tsipras falls to second place.[163]
July 10 – The last Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the line in Puebla, Mexico. The last of 5,961 “Special Edition” cars will be exhibited in a museum.[164]
July 12 – Asasey Hotel attack: A car bomb and a gun attack kill at least 26 people, including two prominent journalists and nine foreigners, in Kismayo, Somalia. Islamist group al-Shabaab claims responsibility.[165]
July 13 – Hurricane Barry strikes the Gulf Coast, killing one and causing over $500 million (2019 USD) in damages.
July 16 – The European Parliament elects Ursula von der Leyen as the new President of the European Commission. Succeeding Jean-Claude Juncker, she will be sworn in on December 1, 2019. She is the first female to be elected to this office in EU history.[166][167]
July 17
Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán, former head of the Sinaloa Cartel, which became the biggest supplier of drugs to the U.S., is sentenced to life in prison plus 30 years.[168]
The World Health Organization (WHO) declares the Kivu Ebola epidemic to be a public health emergency of international concern.[169]
July 18 – At least 35 people are killed and more than 30 others injured after an arson attack at an animation company in Kyoto, Japan.[170] It is one of the deadliest massacres in the country’s history since the end of World War II and the deadliest building fire in the country in 18 years, since the Myojo 56 building fire in 2001.[171]
July 19 – The Iranian Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps captures British tanker Stena Impero and temporarily seizes British-operated and Liberian-flagged tanker Mesdar in the Persian Gulf. The British Foreign Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, warns there will be “serious consequences” if Iran does not release the tanker.[172][173][174]
July 24 – Boris Johnson becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after defeating Jeremy Hunt in a leadership contest, succeeding Theresa May.[175]
July 26 – August 11 – The 2019 Pan American Games are held in Lima, Peru.
July 30 – India bans triple talaq.[176]
August 1 – Danish polar research institution Polar Portal reports a large spike in Greenland ice loss, with 11 billion tons melted in one day and 197 gigatonnes during the month of July.[177]
August 2
The United States officially withdraws from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty established with Russia in 1987.[178]
2019 Japan–South Korea trade dispute: Japan announces the removal of South Korea from its list of most trusted trading partners, effective on August 28.[179]
August 3 – A mass shooting at a Walmart store in El Paso, Texas, United States, leaves 22 people dead and 24 others injured.[180]
August 4
2019 Cairo bombing: A car crashes into three other cars causing an explosion outside the National Cancer Institute Egypt in Cairo, Egypt, killing at least 20 people and injuring 47 others.[181]
2019 Dayton shooting: Ten people, including the perpetrator, are killed and 27 others injured in a mass shooting in Dayton, Ohio, United States, just 13 hours after the mass shooting in El Paso, Texas.[182]
August 5
Revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir: India revokes the part of its constitution that gives Indian-administered Kashmir special status in an unprecedented move.[183][184]
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: Amid ongoing protests, Hong Kong is hit by the first general strikes of their kind since 1967.[185]
August 7 – The Singapore Convention on Mediation, also known as the UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation, comes into effect with 46 countries ratifying it. States that have ratified the treaty will have to ensure that international commercial settlement agreements are enforced by their courts.[186]
August 8 – Nyonoksa radiation accident: Reports indicate that there may have been a nuclear explosion at the Nyonoksa weapons-testing site in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. At least five people were killed and three others injured in the blast, with radiation levels in Severodvinsk, 29 miles (47 km) away from the site, being 20 times above normal levels temporarily.[187]
August 10
Morogoro tanker explosion: A fuel tanker truck explodes in Morogoro, Tanzania, killing at least 89 people and injuring dozens more.[188][189]
32 are killed and 1,000,000 evacuated as Typhoon Lekima makes landfall in Zhejiang, China. Earlier it had caused flooding in the Philippines.[190]
August 10–25 – 2019 Canary Islands wildfires: A number of forest fires break out in the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, Tenerife and Lanzarote. The fires on the island of Gran Canaria were the most severe, resulting in the loss of large areas of the island’s forests and leading to the evacuation of thousands of residents from a number of towns and villages.[191][192]
August 11 – 2019 Indian floods: At least 114 people, including 57 in Kerala, 30 in Karnataka and 27 in Maharashtra, are reported to have died in monsoon-related floods in India. At least 227 died across India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.[193]
August 12
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests: Hong Kong International Airport is closed due to protests.[194]
2019 Japan–South Korea trade dispute: South Korea announces the removal of Japan from its list of most trusted trading partners, effective on September 18.[195][196][197]
The Trump administration announces it will delay its proposal for 10 percent tariffs slated to take effect from September 1 on certain consumer goods from China while exempting other products — l

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